Source code for nni.retiarii.nn.pytorch.nasbench101

# Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation.
# Licensed under the MIT license.

import logging
from collections import OrderedDict
from typing import Callable, List, Optional, Union, Dict, Tuple, cast

import numpy as np
import torch
import torch.nn as nn

from nni.retiarii.mutator import InvalidMutation, Mutator
from nni.retiarii.graph import Model
from .api import InputChoice, ValueChoice, LayerChoice
from .mutation_utils import Mutable, generate_new_label, get_fixed_dict

_logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

def compute_vertex_channels(input_channels, output_channels, matrix):
    This is (almost) copied from the original NAS-Bench-101 implementation.

    Computes the number of channels at every vertex.

    Given the input channels and output channels, this calculates the number of channels at each interior vertex.
    Interior vertices have the same number of channels as the max of the channels of the vertices it feeds into.
    The output channels are divided amongst the vertices that are directly connected to it.
    When the division is not even, some vertices may receive an extra channel to compensate.

    in_channels : int
        input channels count.
    output_channels : int
        output channel count.
    matrix : np.ndarray
        adjacency matrix for the module (pruned by model_spec).

    list of int
        list of channel counts, in order of the vertices.

    num_vertices = np.shape(matrix)[0]

    vertex_channels = [0] * num_vertices
    vertex_channels[0] = input_channels
    vertex_channels[num_vertices - 1] = output_channels

    if num_vertices == 2:
        # Edge case where module only has input and output vertices
        return vertex_channels

    # Compute the in-degree ignoring input, axis 0 is the src vertex and axis 1 is
    # the dst vertex. Summing over 0 gives the in-degree count of each vertex.
    in_degree = np.sum(matrix[1:], axis=0)
    interior_channels = output_channels // in_degree[num_vertices - 1]
    correction = output_channels % in_degree[num_vertices - 1]  # Remainder to add

    # Set channels of vertices that flow directly to output
    for v in range(1, num_vertices - 1):
        if matrix[v, num_vertices - 1]:
            vertex_channels[v] = interior_channels
            if correction:
                vertex_channels[v] += 1
                correction -= 1

    # Set channels for all other vertices to the max of the out edges, going backwards.
    # (num_vertices - 2) index skipped because it only connects to output.
    for v in range(num_vertices - 3, 0, -1):
        if not matrix[v, num_vertices - 1]:
            for dst in range(v + 1, num_vertices - 1):
                if matrix[v, dst]:
                    vertex_channels[v] = max(vertex_channels[v], vertex_channels[dst])
        assert vertex_channels[v] > 0

    _logger.debug('vertex_channels: %s', str(vertex_channels))

    # Sanity check, verify that channels never increase and final channels add up.
    final_fan_in = 0
    for v in range(1, num_vertices - 1):
        if matrix[v, num_vertices - 1]:
            final_fan_in += vertex_channels[v]
        for dst in range(v + 1, num_vertices - 1):
            if matrix[v, dst]:
                assert vertex_channels[v] >= vertex_channels[dst]
    assert final_fan_in == output_channels or num_vertices == 2
    # num_vertices == 2 means only input/output nodes, so 0 fan-in

    return vertex_channels

def prune(matrix, ops) -> Tuple[np.ndarray, List[Union[str, Callable[[int], nn.Module]]]]:
    Prune the extraneous parts of the graph.

    General procedure:

    1. Remove parts of graph not connected to input.
    2. Remove parts of graph not connected to output.
    3. Reorder the vertices so that they are consecutive after steps 1 and 2.

    These 3 steps can be combined by deleting the rows and columns of the
    vertices that are not reachable from both the input and output (in reverse).
    num_vertices = np.shape(matrix)[0]

    # calculate the connection matrix within V number of steps.
    connections = np.linalg.matrix_power(matrix + np.eye(num_vertices), num_vertices)

    visited_from_input = set([i for i in range(num_vertices) if connections[0, i]])
    visited_from_output = set([i for i in range(num_vertices) if connections[i, -1]])

    # Any vertex that isn't connected to both input and output is extraneous to the computation graph.
    extraneous = set(range(num_vertices)).difference(

    if len(extraneous) > num_vertices - 2:
        raise InvalidMutation('Non-extraneous graph is less than 2 vertices, '
                              'the input is not connected to the output and the spec is invalid.')

    matrix = np.delete(matrix, list(extraneous), axis=0)
    matrix = np.delete(matrix, list(extraneous), axis=1)
    for index in sorted(extraneous, reverse=True):
        del ops[index]
    return matrix, ops

def truncate(inputs, channels):
    input_channels = inputs.size(1)
    if input_channels < channels:
        raise ValueError('input channel < output channels for truncate')
    elif input_channels == channels:
        return inputs   # No truncation necessary
        # Truncation should only be necessary when channel division leads to
        # vertices with +1 channels. The input vertex should always be projected to
        # the minimum channel count.
        assert input_channels - channels == 1
        return inputs[:, :channels]

class _NasBench101CellFixed(nn.Module):
    The fixed version of NAS-Bench-101 Cell, used in python-version execution engine.

    def __init__(self, operations: List[Callable[[int], nn.Module]],
                 adjacency_list: List[List[int]],
                 in_features: int, out_features: int, num_nodes: int,
                 projection: Callable[[int, int], nn.Module]):

        assert num_nodes == len(operations) + 2 == len(adjacency_list) + 1

        raw_operations: List[Union[str, Callable[[int], nn.Module]]] = list(operations)
        del operations  # operations is no longer needed. Delete it to avoid misuse

        # add psuedo nodes
        raw_operations.insert(0, 'IN')

        self.connection_matrix = self.build_connection_matrix(adjacency_list, num_nodes)
        del num_nodes  # raw number of nodes is no longer used

        self.connection_matrix, self.operations = prune(self.connection_matrix, raw_operations)

        self.hidden_features = compute_vertex_channels(in_features, out_features, self.connection_matrix)

        self.num_nodes = len(self.connection_matrix)
        self.in_features = in_features
        self.out_features = out_features'Prund number of nodes: %d', self.num_nodes)'Pruned connection matrix: %s', str(self.connection_matrix))

        self.projections = nn.ModuleList([nn.Identity()])
        self.ops = nn.ModuleList([nn.Identity()])
        for i in range(1, self.num_nodes):
            self.projections.append(projection(in_features, self.hidden_features[i]))

        for i in range(1, self.num_nodes - 1):
            operation = cast(Callable[[int], nn.Module], self.operations[i])

    def build_connection_matrix(adjacency_list, num_nodes):
        adjacency_list = [[]] + adjacency_list  # add adjacency for first node
        connections = np.zeros((num_nodes, num_nodes), dtype='int')
        for i, lst in enumerate(adjacency_list):
            assert all([0 <= k < i for k in lst])
            for k in lst:
                connections[k, i] = 1
        return connections

    def forward(self, inputs):
        tensors = [inputs]
        for t in range(1, self.num_nodes - 1):

            # Create interior connections, truncating if necessary
            add_in = [truncate(tensors[src], self.hidden_features[t])
                      for src in range(1, t) if self.connection_matrix[src, t]]

            # Create add connection from projected input
            if self.connection_matrix[0, t]:

            if len(add_in) == 1:
                vertex_input = add_in[0]
                vertex_input = sum(add_in)

            # Perform op at vertex t
            vertex_out = self.ops[t](vertex_input)

        # Construct final output tensor by concating all fan-in and adding input.
        if np.sum(self.connection_matrix[:, -1]) == 1:
            src = np.where(self.connection_matrix[:, -1] == 1)[0][0]
            return self.projections[-1](tensors[0]) if src == 0 else tensors[src]

        outputs =[tensors[src] for src in range(1, self.num_nodes - 1) if self.connection_matrix[src, -1]], 1)
        if self.connection_matrix[0, -1]:
            outputs += self.projections[-1](tensors[0])
        assert outputs.size(1) == self.out_features
        return outputs

[docs]class NasBench101Cell(Mutable): """ Cell structure that is proposed in NAS-Bench-101. Proposed by `NAS-Bench-101: Towards Reproducible Neural Architecture Search <>`__. This cell is usually used in evaluation of NAS algorithms because there is a "comprehensive analysis" of this search space available, which includes a full architecture-dataset that "maps 423k unique architectures to metrics including run time and accuracy". You can also use the space in your own space design, in which scenario it should be possible to leverage results in the benchmark to narrow the huge space down to a few efficient architectures. The space of this cell architecture consists of all possible directed acyclic graphs on no more than ``max_num_nodes`` nodes, where each possible node (other than IN and OUT) has one of ``op_candidates``, representing the corresponding operation. Edges connecting the nodes can be no more than ``max_num_edges``. To align with the paper settings, two vertices specially labeled as operation IN and OUT, are also counted into ``max_num_nodes`` in our implementaion, the default value of ``max_num_nodes`` is 7 and ``max_num_edges`` is 9. Input of this cell should be of shape :math:`[N, C_{in}, *]`, while output should be :math:`[N, C_{out}, *]`. The shape of each hidden nodes will be first automatically computed, depending on the cell structure. Each of the ``op_candidates`` should be a callable that accepts computed ``num_features`` and returns a ``Module``. For example, .. code-block:: python def conv_bn_relu(num_features): return nn.Sequential( nn.Conv2d(num_features, num_features, 1), nn.BatchNorm2d(num_features), nn.ReLU() ) The output of each node is the sum of its input node feed into its operation, except for the last node (output node), which is the concatenation of its input *hidden* nodes, adding the *IN* node (if IN and OUT are connected). When input tensor is added with any other tensor, there could be shape mismatch. Therefore, a projection transformation is needed to transform the input tensor. In paper, this is simply a Conv1x1 followed by BN and ReLU. The ``projection`` parameters accepts ``in_features`` and ``out_features``, returns a ``Module``. This parameter has no default value, as we hold no assumption that users are dealing with images. An example for this parameter is, .. code-block:: python def projection_fn(in_features, out_features): return nn.Conv2d(in_features, out_features, 1) Parameters ---------- op_candidates : list of callable Operation candidates. Each should be a function accepts number of feature, returning nn.Module. in_features : int Input dimension of cell. out_features : int Output dimension of cell. projection : callable Projection module that is used to preprocess the input tensor of the whole cell. A callable that accept input feature and output feature, returning nn.Module. max_num_nodes : int Maximum number of nodes in the cell, input and output included. At least 2. Default: 7. max_num_edges : int Maximum number of edges in the cell. Default: 9. label : str Identifier of the cell. Cell sharing the same label will semantically share the same choice. Warnings -------- :class:`NasBench101Cell` is not supported in :ref:`graph-based execution engine <graph-based-execution-engine>`. """ @staticmethod def _make_dict(x): if isinstance(x, list): return OrderedDict([(str(i), t) for i, t in enumerate(x)]) return OrderedDict(x) @classmethod def create_fixed_module(cls, op_candidates: Union[Dict[str, Callable[[int], nn.Module]], List[Callable[[int], nn.Module]]], in_features: int, out_features: int, projection: Callable[[int, int], nn.Module], max_num_nodes: int = 7, max_num_edges: int = 9, label: Optional[str] = None): def make_list(x): return x if isinstance(x, list) else [x] label, selected = get_fixed_dict(label) op_candidates = cls._make_dict(op_candidates) num_nodes = selected[f'{label}/num_nodes'] adjacency_list = [make_list(selected[f'{label}/input{i}']) for i in range(1, num_nodes)] if sum([len(e) for e in adjacency_list]) > max_num_edges: raise InvalidMutation(f'Expected {max_num_edges} edges, found: {adjacency_list}') return _NasBench101CellFixed( [op_candidates[selected[f'{label}/op{i}']] for i in range(1, num_nodes - 1)], adjacency_list, in_features, out_features, num_nodes, projection) # FIXME: weight inheritance on nasbench101 is not supported yet def __init__(self, op_candidates: Union[Dict[str, Callable[[int], nn.Module]], List[Callable[[int], nn.Module]]], in_features: int, out_features: int, projection: Callable[[int, int], nn.Module], max_num_nodes: int = 7, max_num_edges: int = 9, label: Optional[str] = None): super().__init__() self._label = generate_new_label(label) num_vertices_prior = [2 ** i for i in range(2, max_num_nodes + 1)] num_vertices_prior = (np.array(num_vertices_prior) / sum(num_vertices_prior)).tolist() self.num_nodes = ValueChoice(list(range(2, max_num_nodes + 1)), prior=num_vertices_prior, label=f'{self._label}/num_nodes') self.max_num_nodes = max_num_nodes self.max_num_edges = max_num_edges op_candidates = self._make_dict(op_candidates) # this is only for input validation and instantiating enough layer choice and input choice self.hidden_features = out_features self.projections = nn.ModuleList([nn.Identity()]) self.ops = nn.ModuleList([nn.Identity()]) self.inputs = nn.ModuleList([nn.Identity()]) for _ in range(1, max_num_nodes): self.projections.append(projection(in_features, self.hidden_features)) for i in range(1, max_num_nodes): if i < max_num_nodes - 1: self.ops.append(LayerChoice(OrderedDict([(k, op(self.hidden_features)) for k, op in op_candidates.items()]), label=f'{self._label}/op{i}')) self.inputs.append(InputChoice(i, None, label=f'{self._label}/input{i}')) @property def label(self): return self._label
[docs] def forward(self, x): """ The forward of input choice is simply selecting first on all choices. It shouldn't be called directly by users in most cases. """ tensors = [x] for i in range(1, self.max_num_nodes): node_input = self.inputs[i]([self.projections[i](tensors[0])] + [t for t in tensors[1:]]) if i < self.max_num_nodes - 1: node_output = self.ops[i](node_input) else: node_output = node_input tensors.append(node_output) return tensors[-1]
class NasBench101Mutator(Mutator): # for validation purposes # for python execution engine def __init__(self, label: str): super().__init__(label=label) @staticmethod def candidates(node): if 'n_candidates' in node.operation.parameters: return list(range(node.operation.parameters['n_candidates'])) else: return node.operation.parameters['candidates'] @staticmethod def number_of_chosen(node): if 'n_chosen' in node.operation.parameters: return node.operation.parameters['n_chosen'] return 1 def mutate(self, model: Model): max_num_edges = cast(int, None) for node in model.get_nodes_by_label(self.label): max_num_edges = node.operation.parameters['max_num_edges'] break assert max_num_edges is not None mutation_dict = {mut.mutator.label: mut.samples for mut in model.history} num_nodes = mutation_dict[f'{self.label}/num_nodes'][0] adjacency_list = [mutation_dict[f'{self.label}/input{i}'] for i in range(1, num_nodes)] if sum([len(e) for e in adjacency_list]) > max_num_edges: raise InvalidMutation(f'Expected {max_num_edges} edges, found: {adjacency_list}') matrix = _NasBench101CellFixed.build_connection_matrix(adjacency_list, num_nodes) operations = ['IN'] + [mutation_dict[f'{self.label}/op{i}'][0] for i in range(1, num_nodes - 1)] + ['OUT'] assert len(operations) == len(matrix) matrix, operations = prune(matrix, operations) # possible to raise InvalidMutation inside # NOTE: a hack to maintain a clean copy of what nasbench101 cell looks like self._cur_samples = {} for i in range(1, len(matrix)): if i + 1 < len(matrix): self._cur_samples[f'op{i}'] = operations[i] self._cur_samples[f'input{i}'] = [k for k in range(i) if matrix[k, i]] self._cur_samples = [self._cur_samples] # by design, _cur_samples is a list of samples def dry_run(self, model): return [], model